A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3′-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1. Purification of the paraspeckle complex from adipocytes further showed that PSPC1 associates with the RNA export factor DDX3X in a differentiation-dependent manner. Remarkably, PSPC1 relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during differentiation, coinciding with enhanced export of adipogenic RNAs. Mice lacking PSPC1 in fat displayed reduced lipid storage and adipose tissue mass and were resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to a compensatory increase in energy expenditure. These findings highlight a role for PSPC1-dependent RNA maturation in the posttranscriptional control of adipose development and function.
Jiexin Wang, Prashant Rajbhandari, Andrey Damianov, Areum Han, Tamer Sallam, Hironori Waki, Claudio J. Villanueva, Stephen D. Lee, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Karen Reue, Stephen G. Young, Julian Whitelegge, Enrique Saez, Douglas L. Black, Peter Tontonoz
Tissue inflammation is a key component of obesity-induced insulin resistance, with a variety of immune cell types accumulating in adipose tissue. Here, we have demonstrated increased numbers of B2 lymphocytes in obese adipose tissue and have shown that high-fat diet–induced (HFD-induced) insulin resistance is mitigated in B cell-deficient (Bnull) mice. Adoptive transfer of adipose tissue B2 cells (ATB2) from wild-type HFD donor mice into HFD Bnull recipients completely restored the effect of HFD to induce insulin resistance. Recruitment and activation of ATB2 cells was mediated by signaling through the chemokine leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and its receptor LTB4R1. Furthermore, the adverse effects of ATB2 cells on glucose homeostasis were partially dependent upon T cells and macrophages. These results demonstrate the importance of ATB2 cells in obesity-induced insulin resistance and suggest that inhibition of the LTB4/LTB4R1 axis might be a useful approach for developing insulin-sensitizing therapeutics.
Wei Ying, Joshua Wollam, Jachelle M. Ofrecio, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dalila El Ouarrat, Yun Sok Lee, Da Young Oh, Pingping Li, Olivia Osborn, Jerrold M. Olefsky
The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis. Similarly, adrenalectomized type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats exhibited decreased rates of lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis; these effects were reversed by corticosterone infusion. Leptin-induced decreases in lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis in DKA were also nullified by relatively small increases (15 to 70 pM) in plasma insulin concentrations. In contrast, the chronic glucose-lowering effect of leptin in a STZ-induced mouse model of poorly controlled T1D was associated with decreased food intake, reduced plasma glucagon and corticosterone concentrations, and decreased ectopic lipid (triacylglycerol/diacylglycerol) content in liver and muscle. Collectively, these studies demonstrate marked differences in the acute insulin-independent effects by which leptin reverses fasting hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis in a rodent model of DKA versus the chronic pleotropic effects by which leptin reverses hyperglycemia in a non-DKA rodent model of T1D.
Rachel J. Perry, Liang Peng, Abudukadier Abulizi, Lynn Kennedy, Gary W. Cline, Gerald I. Shulman
Elisa Álvarez Hernández, Sabine Kahl, Anett Seelig, Paul Begovatz, Martin Irmler, Yuliya Kupriyanova, Bettina Nowotny, Peter Nowotny, Christian Herder, Cristina Barosa, Filipa Carvalho, Jan Rozman, Susanne Neschen, John G. Jones, Johannes Beckers, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Michael Roden
Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic imbalances that could be explained in part by an increase in de novo lipogenesis that results from increased sterol element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) activity. The nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is an important regulator of intermediary metabolism in the liver, but its role in regulating lipogenesis is not well understood. Here, we have assessed the contribution of LRH-1 SUMOylation to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice expressing a SUMOylation-defective mutant of LRH-1 (LRH-1 K289R mice) developed NAFLD and early signs of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) when challenged with a lipogenic, high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Moreover, we observed that the LRH-1 K289R mutation induced the expression of oxysterol binding protein-like 3 (OSBPL3), enhanced SREBP-1 processing, and promoted de novo lipogenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of OSBPL3 facilitates SREBP-1 processing in WT mice, while silencing hepatic
Sokrates Stein, Vera Lemos, Pan Xu, Hadrien Demagny, Xu Wang, Dongryeol Ryu, Veronica Jimenez, Fatima Bosch, Thomas F. Lüscher, Maaike H. Oosterveer, Kristina Schoonjans
Gsα, encoded by
Min Chen, Yogendra B. Shrestha, Brandon Podyma, Zhenzhong Cui, Benedetta Naglieri, Hui Sun, Thuy Ho, Eric A. Wilson, Yong-Qi Li, Oksana Gavrilova, Lee S. Weinstein
Loss of β cell identity, the presence of polyhormonal cells, and reprogramming are emerging as important features of β cell dysfunction in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have demonstrated that the transcription factor NKX2.2 is essential for the active maintenance of adult β cell identity as well as function. Deletion of
Giselle Domínguez Gutiérrez, Aaron S. Bender, Vincenzo Cirulli, Teresa L. Mastracci, Stephen M. Kelly, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Klaus H. Kaestner, Lori Sussel
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that form ribonucleoproteins to guide covalent modifications of ribosomal and small nuclear RNAs in the nucleus. Recent studies have also uncovered additional non-canonical roles for snoRNAs. However, the physiological contributions of these small RNAs are largely unknown. Here, we selectively deleted four snoRNAs encoded within the introns of the ribosomal protein L13a (
Jiyeon Lee, Alexis N. Harris, Christopher L. Holley, Jana Mahadevan, Kelly D. Pyles, Zeno Lavagnino, David E. Scherrer, Hideji Fujiwara, Rohini Sidhu, Jessie Zhang, Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, David W. Piston, Maria S. Remedi, Fumihiko Urano, Daniel S. Ory, Jean E. Schaffer
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) precipitates the development of cardiometabolic disorders. Although changes in T cell function associated with visceral obesity are thought to affect chronic VAT inflammation, the specific features of these changes remain elusive. Here, we have determined that a high-fat diet (HFD) caused a preferential increase and accumulation of CD44hiCD62LloCD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 in a B cell–dependent manner in VAT. These cells possessed characteristics of cellular senescence and showed a strong activation of
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Xiaoxiang Yan, Ken Shinmura, Jin Endo, Masaharu Kataoka, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Atsushi Anzai, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Hiroshi Itoh, Ichiro Manabe, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Keiichi Fukuda, Nagahiro Minato, Motoaki Sano
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Many of these changes were reproduced by the transfer of gut microbiota from antibiotic-treated donors to germ-free or germ-depleted mice. These physiological changes closely correlated with changes in serum bile acids and levels of the antiinflammatory bile acid receptor Takeda G protein–coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and were partially recapitulated by treatment with a TGR5 agonist. In contrast, antibiotic treatment of HFD-fed, obesity-resistant 129S1 and obesity-prone 129S6 mice did not improve metabolism, despite changes in microbiota and bile acids. These mice also failed to show a reduction in inflammatory gene expression in response to the TGR5 agonist. Thus, changes in bile acid and inflammatory signaling, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism driven by an HFD can be modified by antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota; however, these effects depend on important interactions with the host’s genetic background and inflammatory potential.
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C. Ronald Kahn